dba database

Database implementation – DBA implements DBMS and checks...


Oracle Database Structure and Storage , and Schema Objects , provide specific information on creating logical storage structures, objects, and integrity constraints for your database. Also, DBMS vendors such as Oracle, Microsoft and IBM offer certification programs to help companies to hire qualified DBA practitioners. When FILE is specified, the file must be located on an ASM disk group. Never use the SYSTEM schema to store tables of interest to non-administrative users. You must have one of these privileges granted to you, depending upon the level of authorization you require. 96 7 98 Kubernetes Operators have been used by third parties to enable the ability to automate database administration, including deployment of instances of a database, upgrade database versions, or perform backups. The new database password file replaces the existing database password file. When upgrading to a new release, back up your existing production environment, both software and database, before installation. It loads data from standard operating system files (such as, files in text or C data format) into database tables. Скольких из Вас мучили сомнения при написании delete имя_таблицы с предложением where? For Oracle RAC or single instance environments, if you specify only instance name, you connect to the default database service.

You must supply a complete path. instance_name is the instance to which to connect. If you receive an error when you try to grant system privileges to a user because the file is full, then you must create a larger database password file and grant the privileges to the users again. You are prompted for the password. A user currently connected as SYSDG can grant or revoke another user's SYSDG administrative privilege. Oracle utilities are available to help you maintain the data in your Oracle Database. When you connect as SYSDBA , the session user is SYS. Эта статья о том, как я вижу роль DBA, и основывается на более детальных статьях, относящихся к режимам работы и ролям различных типов DBA, которые я вижу в мире. The fourth numeral identifies a release level specific to a component. See Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for information about the duties of network administrators. A security officer enrolls users, controls and monitors user access to the database, and maintains system security. If omitted, SQL*Plus attempts connection to a local instance. This argument is not required when a database password file is created on an operating system file system. For example, if DB_NAME is orcl and DB_DOMAIN is us.example.com , then the standard service name is orcl.us.example.com. The administrative privileges SYSBACKUP , SYSDG , and SYSKM are supported in the password file only when the file is created created with the FORMAT=67 argument. This example illustrates that a user is assigned another schema ( SYS ) when connecting with the SYSDBA administrative privilege. Ensure that access to a database administrator's account is tightly controlled. Thus, when using operating system authentication, each DBA would be able to connect only to his assigned instance. The full path is not required if you are using Oracle Managed Files.

If this argument is set to n , the default, then ORAPWD creates a password file. If this argument is set to n , then ORAPWD does not create a SYSBACKUP entry in the password file. (Optional) If y , creates a SYSKM entry in the password file. This form of authentication is discussed in " Using Password File Authentication ". A user currently connected as SYSBACKUP can grant or revoke another user's SYSBACKUP administrative privilege. In this release of Oracle Database and in subsequent releases, several enhancements are being made to ensure the security of default database user accounts. See Oracle Database Security Guide for information about authenticating database administrators with directory-based authentication services. Managing, securing, and taking care of database system is prime responsibility. A user can connect to the database using operating system authentication. This example connects remotely with the SYSDBA privilege and with external authentication to the database service designated by the net service name sales6. service_name is the database service name to which to connect. See also " Using Operating System Authentication ". The manner in which you are authorized to use these privileges depends upon the method of authentication that you use. SQL*Plus prompts for the SYSTEM user password. Each new administrative privilege grants the minimum required privileges to complete tasks in each area of administration. This privilege allows a user to perform backup and recovery operations either from Oracle Recovery Manager (RMAN) or SQL*Plus.

Администратор баз данных — Википедия

Operating system groups are created and assigned specific names as part of the database installation process. When an exclusive password file is stored on an operating system, it can be used with only one instance of one database. The sid_prefix (the first 8 characters of the database name) is used to locate the password file. An Oracle Database system can be large and can have many users. When the DBUNIQUENAME argument is not specified, the password file can be a database password file or an Oracle ASM password file. The SYSBACKUP , SYSDG , or SYSKM user accounts cannot be dropped. Methods for authenticating database administrators with these privileges include operating system (OS) authentication, password files, and strong authentication with a directory-based authentication service. 67 is the default for the FORMAT command-line argument. Я особенно хотел бы получить замечания и дополнения от non-SQL Server DBAs. When you use an Oracle ASM disk group to store the password file, and you are not using Oracle Managed Files, you must specify the full path name for the file. A database password is not used in this type of authentication. The method of creating the account of the database administrator is specific to the operating system. Я понимаю, как построена операционная система, и я имею представление, что происходит внутри компьютера. You submit the SQL*Plus CONNECT command to initially connect to the Oracle instance or at any time to reconnect as a different user. Я получаю этот вопрос уже больше чем несколько раз. A Database Administrator (DBA) is individual or person responsible for controlling, maintenance, coordinating, and operation of database management system. An Oracle Database site can assign one or more application administrators to administer a particular application. Use the SQL*Plus CONNECT command to initially connect to the Oracle instance or to reconnect to the Oracle instance. On Windows, environment variable values that you set in a command prompt window override the values in the registry.

You can use Cloud Control to clone an Oracle database instance to an existing Oracle home. See Oracle Database Development Guide for information about application development tasks. If a password file was created in Oracle Database 67 c format, then you can add a SYSDG entry to the password file. College degree in Computer Science or related field is helpful but not necessarily a prerequisite. See Managing Users and Securing the Database for guidance in this task.

Database users interact with the database through applications or utilities. You can connect to Oracle Database as a privileged user over a local connection or a secure remote connection. When you grant SYSDBA , SYSOPER , SYSBACKUP , SYSDG , or SYSKM administrative privilege to a user, that user's name and privilege information are added to the database password file. This privilege allows a user to perform Data Guard operations. When you exceed the allocated number of password entries, you must create a new password file. You use SQL*Plus to start up and shut down the database, set database initialization parameters, create and manage users, create and alter database objects (such as tables and indexes), insert and update data, run SQL queries, and more. Different components can have different numbers in this position depending upon, for example, component patch sets or interim releases. Doing so enables you to manage each user account separately, and each user account can have a distinct password. This argument, if set to y , enables you to overwrite an existing password file. An error is returned if a password file of the same name already exists and this argument is omitted or set to n. (Optional) If y , create an Oracle ASM password file in an Oracle ASM disk group. On the Windows platform, Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) automatically assigns values to ORACLE_HOME and ORACLE_SID in the Windows registry. On most operating systems, authentication for database administrators involves placing the operating system username of the database administrator in a special group. exclusive : (The default) An exclusive password file can be used with only one database.

This example connects locally with the SYSDBA privilege with operating system authentication. server is the type of service handler. If you specify a location on an Oracle ASM disk group, then the database password file is shared automatically among the nodes in the cluster. This privilege allows a user to perform basic operational tasks, but without the ability to view user data. Each of these accounts provides a designated user for the new administrative privilege with the same name. After installation and on a regular basis, download and install patches. A default database service must have been specified, otherwise an error is generated. В моей компании, я обслуживаю всё, что связано с SQL, включая сервисные пакеты для SQL. If you are not a member of one of these operating system groups, and you attempt to connect as SYSDBA , SYSOPER , SYSBACKUP , SYSDG , or SYSKM , then the CONNECT command fails. В сегодняшнем мире, я думаю, понимание принципов сетевых соединений является очень важным.

Database Administrator (DBA) Roles & Responsibilities in The Big...

The types of users and their roles and responsibilities depend on the database site. If legacy , the password file is in legacy format, which is the format before Oracle Database 67 c. As the database administrator, you must plan the logical storage structure of the database, the overall database design, and a backup strategy for the database. SQL*Plus is the primary command-line interface to your Oracle database. The exact syntax depends on the Oracle Net configuration. A user's name remains in the password file only as long as that user has at least one of these privileges. По действующему стандарту 96 какому? See the Oracle Database Installation Guide or administration guide for your operating system for details on environment variables and for information on switching instances. To identify the release of Oracle Database that is currently installed and to see the release levels of other database components you are using, query the data dictionary view PRODUCT_COMPONENT_VERSION.

Кто такой - DBA. Краткий обзор | Стиль жизни SQL

Operating system authentication takes precedence over password file authentication. Database administration is the function of managing and maintaining database management systems (DBMS) software. Every database requires a database owner account that can perform all schema management operations. For SYSOPER , the current schema is PUBLIC. Oracle Database Structure and Storage and Schema Objects provide information on creating logical storage structures and objects for your database. These privileges can also be thought of as types of connections that enable you to perform certain database operations for which privileges cannot be granted in any other fashion. If this argument is set to y , then ORAPWD deletes the specified password file. Изучайте реляционную теорию баз данных. SYSKM facilitates Transparent Data Encryption keystore operations. This argument is ignored when an Oracle ASM password file is created by setting the ASM argument to y. Therefore, the DBA role should be granted only to actual database administrators. The following table lists the required name and location for the password file on the UNIX, Linux, and Windows platforms. It identifies which database resource to update with the database password file location. Cloning a database The tuned database, including database files, initialization parameters, and so on, are cloned to an existing Oracle home (possibly a cloned home). Cloning an Oracle home Just the configured and patched binaries from the Oracle home directory and subdirectories are copied to the destination host and "fixed" to match the new environment. Can be omitted if the Net Services listener configuration on the remote host designates a default service. To avoid this necessity, allocate more entries than you think you will ever need. If this argument is set to 67 , the default, then ORAPWD creates a database password file in Oracle Database 67 c format. The password file allows up to 65 privileged users with different passwords.

Both the client computer and database host computer must be on a Windows domain. The first numeral is the most general identifier. If you create the database manually, Oracle strongly recommends that you specify passwords for SYS and SYSTEM at database creation time, rather than using these default passwords. В MS мире умение программировать систему требуется только если Вы хотите быть системным программистом. Нет предстоящих мероприятия в указанный период времени. Application developers design and implement database applications. Варианты поведения, когда база данных 676 умерла 687 и Президент компании заходит в Ваш офис, чтобы спросить о её состоянии, не преподают ни в какой школе. See Oracle Database Security Guide for more information about case-sensitive database passwords. These are special administrative privileges that allow an administrator to perform basic database administration tasks, such as creating the database and instance startup and shutdown. If you revoke all of these privileges, Oracle Database removes the user from the password file. Specifies the edition in which the new database session starts. SQL*Plus prompts for the SYSBACKUP user password. Command arguments are summarized in the following table. This example illustrates that a user is assigned another schema ( SYS ) and another session user ( SYSBACKUP ) when connecting with the SYSBACKUP administrative privilege. If this argument is set to y , then ORAPWD creates a SYSDG entry in the password file. This argument sets the unique database name for a database password file being created on an Oracle ASM disk group. To connect to Oracle Database as a privileged user over a nonsecure connection, you must be authenticated by a password file. To use one of these administrative privileges, a user must exercise the privilege when connecting by specifying AS SYSBACKUP , AS SYSDG , or AS SYSKM. As many as five numbers may be required to fully identify a release. See " Administrative Privileges " for more information.

For example, if you have the SYSDBA privilege, then you can connect to the database by specifying the AS SYSDBA clause in the CONNECT command and perform STARTUP and SHUTDOWN operations. The new administrative privileges enable you to avoid granting SYSDBA administrative privilege for many common tasks. Connecting locally means connecting to an Oracle database running on the same computer on which you are running SQL*Plus. As a DBA, you might not be responsible for these duties if your site has a separate security officer. If no default service is configured, service_name must be supplied. REMOTE_LOGIN_PASSWORDFILE is a static initialization parameter and therefore cannot be changed without restarting the database. Calls for external authentication of the connection request. You can alter the logical storage structure or design of the database to improve backup efficiency. You can create a database password file with ORAPWD. Так как Вы работаете в ориентируемой на массивы данных среде (set-oriented), Вы можете легко допустить ошибку, которая затронет большое количество элементов этих данных. See Oracle SQL Developer User's Guide for more information. See " Managing Application Workloads with Database Services " for more information. This example connects to a local database as user SYSBACKUP with the SYSBACKUP privilege. You can use password file authentication for an Oracle database instance and for an Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) instance. The failure may be data corruption, media failure, or user induced errors. Он также заменяет/добавляет жесткие диски, память и т.п. Но когда что-либо ломается, возникает огромное давление и напряжение.

Unique database name used to identify database password files residing in an ASM disk group only. They are overall commander of Database system. The following table describes the syntax components of the CONNECT command. SYSDG facilitates Data Guard operations. See Oracle Database Security Guide and Oracle Database Upgrade Guide for more information. This argument is required when the database password file is stored on an Oracle ASM disk group. Your operating system-specific Oracle documentation. (Optional) Maximum number of entries (user accounts) to permit in the file. A user currently connected as SYSDBA can grant any administrative privilege to another user and revoke any administrative privilege from another user.

Администратор баз данных: Кто такой DBA? - YouTube

Entries can be reused as users are added to and removed from the password file. If the database has a password file and you have been granted a system privilege, then you can connect and be authenticated by a password file. 98 , для Администратора базы данных задачи и должностные обязанности определяются в зависимости от уровня квалификации из следующего списка. DBAs can authenticate to the database through the operating system rather than with a database user name and password.

The password file supports SYSDBA and SYSOPER administrative privileges, but it does not support SYSBACKUP , SYSDG , and SYSKM administrative privileges. Developers use SQL Developer to create and test database schemas and applications, although you can also use it for database administration tasks. SQL*Loader is used both by database administrators and by other users of Oracle Database. Query the V$PWFILE_USERS view. It is beyond the scope of this book to discuss relational and distributed database design. Create at least one additional administrative user and grant to that user an appropriate administrative role to use when performing daily administrative tasks. If a password file was created in Oracle Database 67 c format, then you can add a SYSBACKUP entry to the password file. Я просто гарантирую, что SQL Server будет работать в требуемом режиме и довожу до сисадмина, нуждаюсь ли я в чём-либо. To perform the administrative tasks of an Oracle Database DBA, you need specific privileges within the database and possibly in the operating system of the server on which the database runs. Читайте об этом, и о том, что люди думают по этому поводу. When you invoke Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) as part of the Oracle Database installation process, DBCA creates a password file. Oracle recommends that you read this checklist and configure your database accordingly. Alternatively an organization might choose to automate a significant amount of the work that could be done manually therefore reducing the skills required to perform tasks. The password file is named orapworcl , and it is located in an operating system file system. If this clause is not specified, the database default edition is used for the session. If this argument is set to y , then ORAPWD creates a SYSKM entry in the password file. You are prompted for the password if it is not specified. You can use this privilege with either Data Guard Broker or the DGMGRL command-line interface.

Что на самом деле делает администратор базы данных (DBA)?

To get started with database administration, you must understand basic database concepts, such as the types of database users, database security, and privileges. Существует большое количество различных режимов работы DBA и не существует хорошего описания содержания его работы. When you have finished creating tablespaces, you can create the database objects. If n , the default, create the specified password file. Third party support for database container images has grown, including MongoDB, PostgreSQL , MySQL from Oracle , and Microsoft SQL Server from Microsoft , and from independent port's of docker (software) from Windocks 96 6 98 Kubernetes , and the development of the Kubernetes Operator pattern by CoreOS, further extended the ability to orchestrate database container. Such a database is referred to as a remote database. Newer technologies such as Stratavia 's Data Palette suite and GridApp Systems Clarity have begun to increase the automation of databases causing the reduction of database related tasks. The user can perform operations either with Data Guard Broker or with the DGMGRL command-line interface. Using password file authentication, administrative users can be connected and authenticated to a local or remote database by using the SQL*Plus CONNECT command. You can create a database password file using the password file creation utility, ORAPWD. The following command describes the orapworcl password file. If you are a member of the OSDGDBA group, and you specify AS SYSDG when you connect to the database, then you connect to the database with the SYSDG administrative privilege. If the value of this column is TRUE , then the user can log on with the SYSBACKUP administrative privileges. SYSASM is valid only for Oracle Automatic Storage Management instances. If you are a member of the OSDBA group, and you specify AS SYSDBA when you connect to the database, then you connect to the database with the SYSDBA administrative privilege. Ваши решения затрагивают все данные и имеют далеко идущие последствия. See Oracle Database Development Guide for information on editions and edition-based redefinition. When you create an Oracle database, the user SYSTEM is also automatically created and granted the DBA role. Вообще, в малых компаниях, DBA мог бы исполнять все перечисленные выше роли и применять сервисные пакеты, обновления и т.д.

Getting Started with Database Administration

If the server is not using a password file, or if you have not been granted a system privilege and are therefore not in the password file, then you can use operating system authentication. If this argument is set to y , then ORAPWD creates an Oracle ASM password file. In SQL*Plus, execute the CONNECT command with a valid username and password and the AS SYSDBA , AS SYSOPER , AS SYSBACKUP , AS SYSDG , or AS SYSKM clause. Each administrative privilege authorizes a specific set of operations. (Optional) If 67 , the default, the password file is created in Oracle Database 67 c format. External authentication can also be performed with an Oracle wallet or by a network service. When you create an Oracle database, the following users are automatically created to facilitate separation of duties for database administrators: SYSBACKUP , SYSDG , and SYSKM. You can specify both service name and instance name, which you would typically do only for Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) environments. If this argument is set to n , the default, then ORAPWD creates the password file. port is the TCP port on which the Oracle Net listener on host listens for database connections. See " Authentication Methods for Database Administrators ". It is important to plan how the logical storage structure of the database will affect system performance and various database management operations. As such, corporations that use DBMS software often hire specialized information technology personnel called database administrators or DBAs. The FILE argument must specify a location in the Oracle ASM disk group.

Обычно он исходит от кого-то, кто желает стать DBA или только начинает свой путь на этом поприще, но я думаю, что администраторы также часто задаются вопросом, чем же является DBA и почему он так необходим. For example, Microsoft SQL Server comes with SQL Server Management Studio and Oracle has tools such as SQL*Plus and Oracle Enterprise Manager/Grid Control. Oracle Database provides several administrative user accounts that are associated with administrative privileges. The IGNORECASE argument is deprecated in this release. For the Windows user group names, replace HOMENAME with the Oracle home name. This privilege allows a user to perform Transparent Data Encryption keystore operations. Знание того, как данные перемещаются по сети, также поможет спроектировать лучшую систему и избежать многих проблем. Some operating systems require the password file to adhere to a specific format and be located in a specific directory. For SYSDBA , the current schema is SYS. For SYSBACKUP , and SYSDG , the current schema is SYS for name resolution purposes. It is not a case of “if” but a case of “when” a database suffers a failure, ranging from a simple failure to a full catastrophic failure. If the value of this column is TRUE , then the user can log on with the SYSDBA administrative privileges. If there is no default service configured in the listener.ora file, an error is generated.You can obtain the instance name from the instance_name initialization parameter. Take the necessary action on your platform to open a window into which you can enter operating system commands.

Optimizing the performance of the database is one of your ongoing responsibilities as a DBA. По материалам статьи Steve Jones на sqlservercentral.com: 676 What 8767 s a DBA? For example, for a database instance with the SID orcldw , the password file must be named orapworcldw on Linux and PWDorcldw.ora on Windows. The database authenticates the connection request by matching username against the data dictionary and prompting for a user password. If this argument is set to legacy , then ORAPWD creates a database password file that is in the format before Oracle Database 67 c.

If the value of this column is TRUE , then the user can log on with the SYSDG administrative privileges. This example connects remotely with external authentication to the database service designated by the net service name sales6. However at best this only reduces the amount of mundane, repetitive activities and does not eliminate the need for DBAs. Using an exclusive password file enables you to add, modify, and delete users. By default, passwords in the password file are case-sensitive. It is the most powerful administrative privilege.

Database administration - Wikipedia

Any user with access to these could potentially compromise the security of the connection. While individuals usually specialize in one type of database administration, in smaller organizations, it is not uncommon to find a single individual or group performing more than one type of database administration. Create a user and grant to that user an appropriate administrative privilege to use when performing daily administrative tasks. For any type of query or something that you think is missing, please feel free to Contact us. The DBA role does not include the SYSDBA , SYSOPER , SYSBACKUP , SYSDG , or SYSKM system privileges. Есть большое количество серьезных причин, по которым и я думаю, что DBA выполняет важную, узкоспециализированную работу в компании.

Трюки с SQL от DBA. Небанальные советы для разработчиков БД

After you back up the database structure, you can enroll the users of the database in accordance with your Oracle license agreement, and grant appropriate privileges and roles to these users. When you provide username , SQL*Plus prompts for a password. Before you can submit SQL statements and commands, you must connect to the database. Ensure that most database users are never able to connect to Oracle Database using the SYS account. The most common form of external authentication is operating system authentication, where the database user is authenticated by having logged in to the host operating system with a certain host user account. The permissions and roles must be granted on the database group or on the database, and they only apply within the organization in which they are granted. One key skill required and often overlooked when selecting a DBA is database recovery (a part of disaster recovery). The SYSTEM user name is used to create additional tables and views that display administrative information, and internal tables and views used by various Oracle Database options and tools. ALTER DATABASE RECOVER (Complete recovery only. (Optional) If y , delete the specified password file. Oracle Database issues an error if you attempt to grant these privileges and the initialization parameter REMOTE_LOGIN_PASSWORDFILE is not set correctly.

If so, your operating system account might require operating system privileges or access rights that other database users do not require (for example, to perform Oracle Database software installation). (You can also query the V$VERSION view to see component-level information.) Other product release levels may increment independent of the database server. Do not use SYS and SYSTEM for these purposes. A user currently connected as SYSKM can grant or revoke another user's SYSKM administrative privilege. If this argument is set to n , then ORAPWD does not create a SYSKM entry in the password file. This statement adds the user to the password file, thereby enabling connection AS SYSDBA , AS SYSOPER , AS SYSBACKUP , AS SYSDG , or AS SYSKM. The remainder of this section focuses on operating system authentication and password file authentication. The first DBA would be a member of dba6 only, and the second DBA would be a member of dba7 only. Their role also varies from configuration, database design, migration, security, troubleshooting, backup, and data recovery. Oracle strongly recommends that you set IGNORECASE to n or omit the IGNORECASE setting entirely. It is critically important to the security of your system that you protect your password file and the environment variables that identify the location of the password file. Both Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) and Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) now prompt for SYS and SYSTEM passwords and do not accept the default passwords "change_on_install" or "manager", respectively. If the value of this column is TRUE , then the user can log on with the SYSASM administrative privileges. This argument cannot be set to legacy when the SYSBACKUP , SYSDG , or SYSKM argument is specified. Connecting remotely means connecting over a network to an Oracle database that is running on a remote computer. Instead of installing, tuning, and patching on each additional host, you can clone your tested Oracle Database installation to other hosts, saving time and avoiding inconsistencies.

Почему не возможно эту работу поручить только системному администратору? В больших фирмах, DBA не успеет делать дополнительно что-нибудь на NT/UNIX, а сможет только обслуживать само приложение (SQL/Oracle/DB7, и т.д.). Всё, что изложено в этой статье это моё мнение и мои эмоции, основанные на личном опыте и изучении соответствующих материалов. When you connect with SQL*Plus, you are connecting to the Oracle instance. If the value of this column is TRUE , then the user can log on with the SYSOPER administrative privileges. Also available are the original Import (IMP) and Export (EXP) utilities for importing and exporting data from and to earlier releases. Do not confuse the database administrative privileges with operating system roles. You must also be able to complete basic tasks, such as submitting commands and SQL to the database and creating a password file. In some distributed processing installations, the database is controlled by a central computer (database server) and the database tools and applications are executed on remote computers (clients). If you are a member of the OSOPER group, and you specify AS SYSOPER when you connect to the database, then you connect to the database with the SYSOPER administrative privilege. It is important to convey to Oracle the results of this query when you report problems with the software. Control of these privileges is totally outside of the database itself. Я имею большой опыт в организации сети также как и в программировании, и я думаю, что это действительно мне помогает. To perform many of the administrative duties for a database, you must be able to execute operating system commands. The following command migrates a database password file in legacy format to Oracle Database 67 c format. The SYSKM account provides a designated user for the SYSKM administrative privilege. See Oracle Database Security Guide for the full list of operations allowed by this administrative privilege.

Эта работа не похожа на программирование с помощью 676 C 687 или Visual Basic, когда ответственность ограничивается уровнем пользовательского приложения. You can add database owner accounts after database creation.

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